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WORMING - Kittens are very prone to intestinal worms and they must be wormed every fortnight until they are 12 wks old.  After this age regular worming every 3 mths is recommended to keep your kitten, and protect yourself and family from these harmfull parasites.  We recommend Drontal Plus all wormer.  The pet shop varieties may not be as efficient or broad spectrum for killing off all worm types.
HEARTWORM - Heartworm does occur in cats yet at a very low percentage 2-5% of the population.  We do have heartworm prevention in a monthly chew if you would like this protection.
FLEA/PARALYSIS TICKS - Fleas are present all year round, more so in the summer months, and cause intense skin reactions and irritation.  There is a 6 monthly injection that can be given to cats to control the population of fleas in your house. (This is best for large flea populations, and indoor only cats)  The Life threatening Paralysis Tick is present in this area and we recommend regular 2-3 wkly tick prevention products for your pet during the tick season (End August till late May).  And checking your pet daily for ticks during this time.
FEEDING - We recommend a well balance good quality kitten food/ dry food preferred.  There are many on the market -speak to our nurse about the best foods available, as some may cause problems with crystals in urine and obesity later in life.  Cows milk/dairy is not recommended for cats as it can cause dairrhoea.  Cat milk is ok for kittens.
VACCINATIONS - These are started from the age of 6-8wks, and the second given at 10-12wks, and the final kitten vaccination at 14-16wks.  After this only a yearly check up and vaccination will keep your cat's immunity strong.
F4 - Feline PanLeukopenia virus , Feline Rhinotracheitis Virus (Herpes Cat Flu Virus) , Caliciviris ( Calici Cat Flu Virus) , Chlamydophilia infection(Chlamydia Psittaci) .
F5 - Feline PanLeukopenia Virus , Feline Rhinotracheitis Virus , Calicivirus , Chlamydophilia infection , and  protection against Feline Leukemia Virus.
Feline Leukemia Virus (Felv) - A contagous Virus spread through close contact, bites and scratches with other cats.  This virus reduces the immune system and can cause several cancer types.
Feline Aids Virus (FIV) - This virus is present in 14% - 29% of cats in Australia, and is spread through bites and scratches from other infected cats.  It is similar to the Human aids virus -but cannot be transmitted to humans. 
There is a new VACCINE available for this AIDs virus in cats and ask the vet about protection.
NEUTERING - This is recommended to prevent a large range of problems from preventing mammary, ovarian and testicular cancers, preventing unwanted pregnancy, and fighting / urine marking in male cats.
We recommend desexing from the age of 5mths( first seasons occur from 5 to 6 mths onwards ).
This involves a day stay for surgery / home that afternoon, and rapid recovery occurs the younger the cat.
PET INSURANCE - This is highly recommended to cover costs for unexpected illness/ accidents / and diseases.  Veterinary costs can escalate well into the $$$$+ if extensive/complicated/specialist treatments are required.

WORMING - Puppies are very prone to intestinal worms and they must be wormed every fortnight until they are 12 wks old.  After this age regular worming every 3 mths is recommend to keep your dog, and protect yourself and your family from these harmfull worms.  We recommend Drontal Plus all wormer.  Pet shop varieties may not be as efficient or broad spectrum for killing off all worm types.
HEARTWORM - All dogs must be on heartworm protection all year round in this area.  This must be started from the age of 12wks onwards.  There is an annual injection, or monthly tablets/chews for this protection.  Contact us if your dog has lapsed, or is not on any heartworm prevention.
FLEA/PARALYSIS TICKS - Fleas are present all year round, mostly in the summer, and cause intense skin reactions and irritaion.  The life threatening Paralysis Tick is present in this area and we recommend regular 2-3 wkly tick protection for your pet during the Tick season( End August  till late May ).  And checking your pet daily for ticks during this time.
FEEDING - We recommend a well balanced good quality puppy food/ dry food.  There are many on the market, most of all the larger breeds require more specific foods to regulate growth rates and protect bones and joints.  Speak to us about the different varieties available.
We recommend 3-4 x daily feeding up until the age of 4-6 mths then to reduce to twice daily.  Puppies must be kept on PUPPY food until at least 12 - 18mths old depending on the breed and Veterinary advice.  Milk/dairy can cause diarrhoea.  Chews are highly recommended for teathing.
SOCIALIZATION - This is very important for your puppy's future interactions with other dogs.  The sooner you can get your puppy mixing with other dogs the better ( providing your pup is fully vaccinated).  Puppy training schools are highly recommended!
VACCINATIONS - These are started from the age of  6-8wks, then the second at 10-12wks and the final puppy vaccination at 14-16wks.  After this only a yearly check up and vaccination is required to keep your dog's immunity strong.
C3 - Canine Parvo Virus , Canine Distemper , Canine Hepatitis only
C5 - Canine Parvo Virus , Canine Distemper , Canine Heptatitis , and additional protection against the two components of Canine Infectious Bronchitis ( Kennel Cough ).
NEUTERING - This is recommended to prevent a large range of problems from prevention of mammary, ovarian, testicular, and prostatee cancers and diseases.  To reducing unwanted heats and pregnancy.  Reducing male dominant aggression behaviour and roaming.
We recommend desexing all pets at the age of 5-6mths (before their first season).
This involves a day stay/home that afternoon, and full recovery in 24-48hrs post op. 
The younger your pet is desexed the quicker their recovery time, and less chance of complications.
PET INSURANCE - This is highly recommended to cover your pet for unexpected illness/injury or disease.
Veterinary costs can escalate into the $$$$+ if your pet requires extensive/complicated/specialist treatments.
 - Benefits of Neutering your pets
There are many benefits in the neutering of your pets. There are both behavioural benefits as well as medical benefits.
Castration of your pets:
In Tom cats it stops them from roaming, aggression and cat fights as well as occasionally to control other behavioural problems. It also is carried out to prevent territorial spraying around your house and decreases the smell of your cats urine.If your cats are involved in cat fights they are at more of a risk of getting Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV or Feline Aids). This is a fatal viral disease that interferes with the immune system of your cat.There is NO cure or treatment for this disease. There is a vaccination. The other disease is Feline Leukemia (FeLV) which is from cat fights as well as shared feeding bowls with infected animals.This disease also affects your cats immune system. There is also NO cure or treatment for this disease. There is a Vaccination. The best way to stop your cat from fighting is desexing and keeping them in at night.
With dogs it also helps occasionally to control behavioural problems as well as roaming,excessive libdo or aggression.There are several diseases of the testes,affecting dogs more than cats. One is the absence of the testes which is rare but means that the testes are retained in the abdomen.These should have desended by the age of 12 weeks. There is another condition known as Cryptorchidism which means that one testicle has desended but the other one has not.The best treatment for this is neutering as there is a high incidence of Neoplasia (cancer) within the abdominal testes.This condition is likely to be inherited. They can also get inflammation of the testes,it is rare but may follow trauma (especailly in cats) or bacterial infections. Testicular tumors are the second most common tumors affecting male dogs.There are three common tumor types.The best treatment of these is surgery.Prostate abnormalities are common in dogs, They include benign enlargement, bacterial prostatitis, prostatic cysts and prostatic tumours. Clinical sign are the same for all.They include difficulty urinatating and defecating and the presence of blood in the urine. Treatment of all of these is castration.
 - Benefits for spaying your pets:
Cats and Dogs;
The most important benefit is to stop unwanted litters. It will decrease the risk of mammary gland tumours if done before there frist season. It also stops older animals from developing tumours of the ovaries or uterus.There is the advantage of the absence of oestrous behaviour. There is also the elimintaion of the problem of the animals having a false pregnancy. Dogs, Ferrets, and Rabbits are best desexed to prevent the development of Pyometra (uterine infection) in later life. In cats will also help stop them from getting into cat fights. If you cat is involved in a cat fight it will be at a higher risk of getting Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV or Feline Aids). This is a fatal viral disease that interferes with the immune system of your cat. There is NO cure or treatment for this disease. There is a vaccination. The other disease is Feline Leukemia (FeLV). Which comes from being in cat fights as well as shared feeding bowls with infected animals.This disease also affects your cats immune system.There is NO cure or treatment for this disease. There is a vaccination. To help your cats from getting in to cat fights get them desexed and keep them in at night. Vaccination will also help prevent these diseases if your cat does get into a fight.
 If you are not going to breed your pet it is healther for your pet if they are desexed.  Desexing also helps to stop hereditary defects eg: eyes, ears, hips and many more.
The only disadvantage is that your pet may gain weight but with the proper diet and exercise your pet will be able to maintain a proper body weight.
The best time to neuter your pets is between the age of 5-6 months. As females can come in to season any time after the age of 6 months, and males cats will start to spray and cats and dogs will want to wonder.
We do have brochures on Feline Immunodeficiency Virus if you would like futher infomation.
 - Flea/Tick Infomation
The way most of these products work is that it kills the fleas and as they lose fur it also helps within their enivroment.The other products sterilze the fleas after the fleas have bitten your pets.Depending on season you might still see fleas on your pet then depending on the product you use you can apply most products every fortnight.Check frist before doing this.
Frontline:Fleas -Kills fleas in every stage of the fleas life cycle. Can be used on Dogs and Cats from the age of 8 weeks.Applied every four weeks in between the shoulder blades by parting the fur and apply on the skin.Do NOT touch this part of your pet until the Frontline drys,if you do touch the Frontline wash your hands straight away.Washing: you can wash your pet,wait until dry and apply.If you apply the Frontline frist you will have to wait 48 hours until you can wash your pet.In summer Frontline can be applied every two weeks.
Ticks:Helps control Brown dog ticks and paralysis ticks.If using for ticks Frontline should be applied every two weeks.
Also helps control biting lice.Frontline can NOT be used on Rabbits.
Size of packets 3 packs and 6 packs.
It is recommened that you use the right weight range for your pet.Dogs sizes are up to 10kg (yellow),10 - 20kg(blue),20 - 40kg (purple) and 40-60kg (red).Cats is one size for all.
Frontline Spray:is used for fleas and ticks the same as the drops.But with the spray you will have to sit down with your cat or dog.Put on a pair of rubber gloves and spray your pet.It depends on size to how much is need.It it a certain number of sprays per kg of body weight and coat length.and you have to rub the Frontline through your pets coat until you touch the skin.Avioding the eye/ears/nose/and mouth.To apply around these areas spray on glove and wipe around area.Fleas;It will last for 8 weeks.Ticks:will last for 3 weeks.
Size of bottles are 100ml,250ml and 500ml.
We also have product brochures for further infomation.
Revoultion:Can be use from 8 weeks of age in cats and dogs.
Cats:Treats fleas in every stage of the fleas life cycle.Also treats Ear mites/Heartworm/Hookworm/Roundworm.To be used every 4 weeks by applying to back near shoulder blades on the skin.
Size of packs 3 packs and 6 packs.
It is recommened that you use the right weight range for your cats;0.1 - 2.5 kg(pink)
or 2.6 -7.5 kg(blue).
Dogs:Treats fleas in every stage of the fleas life cycle.Also treats Heartworm/Ear mites/Sarcoptic mites.If your pet if already on another Heartworm product you will have to stop that treatment before using Revoultion or choose another Flea treatment for your pet.You can still bath your dog as normal.To be applied every 4 weeks to back near shoulder blades on the skin.
Size of Packets 3 packs and 6 packs.
It is recommened that you use the right weight range for your dog;0.1 - 2.6kg(pink),2.6 - 5kg(purple),5.1 - 10kg (brown),10.1 - 20kg (red),20.1- 40kg(teal).
This product does NOT treat ticks.
Sentinel for Dogs:Prevents and controls fleas long term.The way sentinel works is that the flea bites your pet and it sterlizes the females,so they can not breed.It will take same time before you see any change as it does not kill the fleas.It breaks the breeding cycle of the flea.You will still see some fleas on your pet.You can start on this product from the age of 2 weeks.Sentinel also does heartworm as well as roundworm/whipworm/hookworm and tapeworm.If your pet is all ready on heartworm product.You will have to stop that product before using Sentinel or choose another flea product.This product does NOT treat ticks.You can still bath your pet as normal as this is an oral product.
Size of packs; 6 months.Needs to be given orally every four weeks.
It is recommened that you use the right weight range for your pet : up to 4kg(orange), 4.5 - 11.5kg(green),12 - 22kg (yellow) and 22.5 - 45kg(white).
Program Flea injection for cats:This is an injection flea product that needs to be given by a vet.It will last 6 months.The way this proucts works is when the flea bites your pet it will sterlize the female fleas.It might be some time before you see this start to work.You might also still see some fleas on your pet.This product does NOT treat ticks.
It comes in two different size injection for cats up to 4.5kg and cats over 4.5 kg.
Advocate for cats:Can be use from 9 weeks of age.It Kills fleas in every stage of their life cycle.Also treats heartworm/intestinal worms as well as controls ear mites.To be applied every four weeks to the back of the neck near the shoulder blades on the skin.This Product does NOT treat ticks.
Size of packs :3 pack and 6 pack.
It is recommened that you used the right weight range for your pet:Kitten and Cats up to 4kg (orange) and cats over 4kg (purple).
Advantage for cats:Kills fleas in every stage of the fleas life cycle and kills flea larvae in pets surroundings.Can also be used on Rabbits and Ferrets as long as right dose is given.To be used every 4 weeks.But if fleas are bad can be used every 2 weeks.By Applying to the back of neck near shoulder blades on the skin.This product does NOT treat ticks.
Size of packs: 4 pack or 6 pack.
It is recommened to use the right weight range for your pet :Cats and Kittens up to 4kg (orange) and cats over 4kg (purple).
Advantage for dogs:Kills fleas in every stage of the fleas life cycle and kills flea larvae in the pets surroundings.To be used every 4 weeks,but can be used every 2 weeks if fleas are bad.You can wash your dog as normal.Apply to the back of the neck near shoulder blades on the skin.This product does NOT treat ticks.
Size of packs:4 pack or 6 pack.
It is recommened to use the right weight range for your pet;Puppies and dogs up to 4 kg(green),4 -10kg (aqua),10 - 25kg (red) and over 25 kg(blue).When treating the dogs over 25kg you will need to apply the tube in two - three places down the dogs back.
Advantix for dogs:Kills and repels ticks.Kills fleas and flea larvae.Also Repels and kills Mosquitoes and sandflies.To be applied every 4 weeks for fleas and every 2 weeks for ticks.Apply to the back of the neck near shoulder blades on skin.Can be used on puppies from 7 weeks of age.
Size of packs:3 pack or 6 pack.
It is recommened that you use the right weight range for your pet :Puppies and small dogs up to 4kg (green),4 - 10kg (aqua),10 -25 kg (red) and over 25kg (blue).For dogs over 25kg you will need to apply the tude in two - three places down the dogs back.
This Product is NOT to be used on cats.We also have a product brochure for further infomation.

Repel - x insecticial spray:To be used only on dogs.Not to be used on cats.It treat flies and other biting insects.Spray the dog from head to tail with care around eyes/ears/nose/and mouth.Use in a sweeping motion.Can be used twice daily when needed.Good around kennels and sleeping areas of your dog.
Size of bottles :125ml,250ml,500ml.
Kiltix tick collar for dogs: To be used only on dogs.Do not use on cats.Do not use on puppies less than 3 months of age.Your pet should not be allowed to chew this collar as could cause poisoning.If you touch the collar wash you hands straight away.Used for control of ticks for up to 5 months,aids in control of paralysis ticks for 6 weeks and controls fleas for 5 months.When you frist put on collar watch for any irritation if any occurs remove collar.You can wash your pet as normal but is advisable to remove collar and put back on when pet is dry.
Size of collar :45g
Preventic tick collar:Not for use on cats.Controls ticks for up to 2 months.If skin irritation occurs remove collar.Do not touch collar if you do wash hands straight away.Do not let childern touch or play with collar.
Size of collar :60cm
Permoxin Insecticial spray and rinse for dogs:Do NOT use on cats.Do NOT use on puppies under 12 weeks of age.Helps repel and kill Flies,biting inscets,fleas,ticks and paralysis ticks.Comes as a conentrate and has to be mixed down to weather you use a rinse or spray.Spray 10ml/400ml of water.Leave to dry.Rinse 10ml/400ml of water,rinse dog and leave to dry.Can use daily or weekly.Can also be used around kennels or sleeping area of your pet.
Size of bottles:200ml,250ml,1lt
Fly Repella cream for dogs:Repelles flies and other bitng insects.Clean affected area frist then apply cream to area where Flies bite.Eg ears,tail,around eyes twice daily.
Size of tube;50g
When you use any of these products for ticks do not depend on these products as the only means for killing ticks they will help but in high tick season (sept - march) you should check your dog or cat daily. Which is a must in any area but if you live near bush or in a high tick area (Avalon,Belrose,Terrey Hills,Clontarf,Frenchs Forest,Cromer,Davidson) This should be done with out fail or if you are planning to visit any of these areas. The list could go on for affected areas if you want to know if your area is high risk or how to check your pet for ticks please ask one of us here and we can help you.If you have any other questions feel free to ask us.Also if you treat one pet in the household you should treat all the pets in the household or the pets that have not been treated will re-infest the pet you are treating as well as your house.We also have a brouchure on tick paralysis prevention for further infomation.
 Acne in Cats.
Feline Acne
Is a skin disease affecting the chin of cats. Although fungal infections and allergies may be cause of this condition, it is thought to be primarily the result of the inability or lack of desire of some cats to clean their own chin. Most cats groom themselves on a daily basis and clean their chins by licking their front feet and then utilizing the moist foot to clean the underside of the chin.
Cats that are ill or just too lazy to thoroughly groom themselves are prone to the “Blackheads”. Blackheads are nothing more than blood and infection that have accumulated in the hair follicle. The condition can sometimes be very severe and painful. In severe cases, it can result in open sores on the chin.
Recurrence of the problem after treatment is common because of the ongoing lack of cleaning the chin by the cat.
Treatment Recommendations;
  •          Clean your pet’s chin daily with alcohol to remove the oily accumulations.
  •          Clean your pet’s chin daily with recommended shampoo to cleanse the hair follicles.
  •          Apply topical medication to your pet’s chin every ______ hours.
  •          Give _______   tablet every ______ hours for infection.
  •          Notify the Hospital if your pet’s chin lesions get worse or are not improved within 5 days.

The aggressive dog is a difficult problem. If you are the owner of an aggressive dog, you should weigh the risks of keeping an aggressive pet against the benefits. It is important that you consider the following;
  •          With proper treatment, the frequency and severity of aggression may be reduced, but in most cases it cannot be totally eliminated.
  •         Even after treatment, no one can guarantee that the aggression will never occur again.
  •          You are legally responsible for your dog’s behaviour.
  •          It is important to realistically consider whether keeping the pet is worth the risks.
Obtaining a thorough history is important in trying to find a solution to the problem of aggression. Please answer the following questions;
  •          Is your dog aggressive towards family members?
  •          Is it aggressive to adult family members?
  •          Is it aggressive towards children family members?
  •          Is it aggressive towards other pets in the household?
  •          Is your dog aggressive to non - family members?
  •          Is it aggressive to adult non – family members?
  •          Is it aggressive to children non – family members?
  •          Is it aggressive to pets not in the household?
  •          Is your dog’s aggressive behaviour recent (within the past 6 months?)
  •         Did the problem develop gradually?
  •          Is the problem getting worse?
  •         Does your dog growl or bark threateningly?
  •          Does your dog snap?
  •          Is the aggressive behaviour associated with play?
  •          Has your dog ever bitten a person,
  •          Has your dog ever bitten another animal?
  •          Is your dog aggressive when approached while eating?
  •          Is your dog aggressive when disciplined, threatened, punished, or hit?
  •         Is your dog aggressive when disturbed when sleeping or resting?
  •         Is your dog aggressive when people enter your home?
  •         Is your dog aggressive when people enter your yard?
  •         Is your dog aggressive ONLY when reached for or approached?
  •          If your dog is female, has she been in heat or had puppies within the last 6 months?
  •         Are their areas of your dog’s body that seem to be especially sensitive?
  •         In the aggression related to attempts to groom, medicate, or handle?
  •          Does the dog have any health problem at this time/
  •          Do you notice your dog exhibiting fear (ears back, tail tucked).
  •          Does your dog only fight with dogs of the same sex?
Joints allow movement between bones. Movement is controlled by ligaments and tendons which are made of very tough tissue which attaches to the bones. The knee joint is particularly susceptible to damage from strained or torn ligament.


The Anterior Cruciate Ligament attaches the femur to the tibia (shinbone) preventing excessive motion between these two bones keeping the joint stable. Over – extension of the knee joint may tear this ligament allowing the two bones to slide back and forth causing pain, lameness, and instability.
Excessive movement over a period of time leads to arthritis and pain. Overweight dogs are most susceptible due to the excess pressure created on the joints. Conservative medical therapy initially using anti – inflammatory drugs may allow healing if the ligaments are merely stretched instead of being torn.
Without medical/ surgical attention, this abnormal wear and tear will lead to arthritis and chronic discomfort.
Depending on the severity of the rupture, treatment may consist of rest and medication or surgical repair of the torn ligament. Your doctor will advise you concerning the treatment necessary for your pet.
If surgery is recommended, it may consist of the following;
  •          Removal of the damaged cartilage.
  •          Replacement of the torn ligament.
  •          Tightening of the joint to help prevent abnormal movement.
Even after surgery, recovery may take days to weeks depending upon the individual. Due to the injury, some arthritis is inevitable. Therefore, the joint will rarely be “good as new”, but should be noticeably better.
Remember, rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament most frequently occurs in overweight dogs. Because of this, the problem could occur in the other leg at a later time. Weight reduction is highly recommended.
 - Breeding
Female dogs complete the “estrus cycle” every 6 – 12 months, depending on many factors. Most dogs repeat the cycle every 6 – 9 months. The “heat cycle” generally begins at 7 – 12 months of age – the age of “puberty”.  Don’t worry if your pet does not show a heat cycle until one year of age – this can be normal. It is important that you do NOT breed until at least TWO years of age, or the second heat cycle to insure proper development of the female dog. The period of estrus (“heat”) is approximately 21 days. The dog is usually receptive to the male only during the second week. Most breeding occurs from the ninth to twelfth day.
If breeding is not desired, the dog must be confined and restricted from male dogs for the ENTIRE three – weeks period since ovulation can occur at any time. Some animals, especially pets, will not stand for the male, and must be physically held or bred artificially. These dogs must have close veterinary supervision, using vaginal smears examined under the microscope, to determine the proper breeding time. If dogs do breed, we recommend breeding every other day as long as the female will accept the male to insure the best size litter. After a “normal” breeding, the dogs may remain “TIED “together” for up to 30 minutes.
Occasionally, the male dog will turn around, making the dogs look “end to end”. This is NORMAL and to be expected, and is no cause for alarm. Since pregnancy represents a considerable strain on the female, we do not recommend breeding every season. Acceptable breeding programs include breeding every other “heat”, or breeding two consecutive “heat cycles” and then skipping the third.
If pregnancy results from the mating; the puppies will be due in about 63 days. Begin counting from the first breeding. Remember that 63 days is the average. Your dog may vary three days either way. We recommend examining all pregnant females that go three days past the due date.
Before a planned breeding, the female should be checked for intestinal parasites and be current with vaccinations. She should be fed high quality commercial dog food.
Facts you should know;
X ray can be used to diagnose pregnancy 45 days after breeding. Milk generally will form in the breasts 1 – 3 days before the delivery due date. Make a “whelping bed/box” (4’ x 4’ and 6’ tall). Temperature should be maintained around 26.6 degrees C. Use shredded paper for bedding. Place the bedding in a secluded area, but familiar area of the house. A child’s swimming pool is ideal. Clip the hair around the breasts and vulva. Wash these areas before whelping to insure good hygiene. Twenty – four (24) hours before the onset of labour, the rectal temperature will usually drop from 38.6 degrees to 37.7 degrees or less.
When labour nears, the dog often will dig and make a nest. Excessive panting and/or vomiting should be noted. If this occurs, or if uncontrollable tremors develop, notify the HOSPITAL. This can be a sign of low blood calcium, which can result in death of your pet.
The next step is ACTIVE LABOUR. Usually, dogs have puppies with no difficulty. Problems do, however occur, and WE are always available for advice and assistance. If hard labour goes on for two hours with no sign of delivery, call us. Straining, bearing down, and pushing are the signs of active labour. If a puppy’s head, feet, or tail can been seen, and the puppy is unable to be delivered in 15 minutes, please call us. If everything appears normal, LEAVE THE DOG ALONE!! Noise and movement often distract the dog so that she does not concentrate on delivering and/or nursing the pups. A green or black vaginal discharge with no pup delivered indicates a problem, call the hospital. If the female is bred to a male dog larger than herself, the puppies may be too large to be delivered without assistance. Many times when the male is a mixed breed, he will be carrying “genes “that will result in very large pups – causing a life – threatening problem. The pup is usually delivered in a “sac”, but as small green sac of fluid may appear before the pup is delivered. If the female doesn’t break the sac, after the pup is delivered, you must very quickly or the pup will suffocate. Wipe off the pup with a clean towel, cleaning the head and mouth first. Keep the pup’s head down lower than the body to help fluid drainage. Leave the umbilical cord ALONE for 30 minutes. You may cut the cord one inch from the body, IF the female does not do it herself. Tie the cord with sewing thread before cutting. The female may rest 30 – 40 minutes between delivering each pup. Sometimes, this period may extend up to one hour on large litters. Pups often come in pairs, with longer period of time between delivering each pair. If a period over three hours has occurred, contact the HOSPITAL. Make sure the pups nurse within two hours after birth. When the female dog is done with delivery, she will rest and nurse the pups. Food and water should be available to her. Take her outside to exercise and relieve her. Some dogs make poor mothers and will not let the pups nurse. Some dogs will actually kill the pups – especially if very nervous. This is one reason it is important to keep the environment as quiet and calm as possible. Do not let children or friends handle the pups or stand around to observe. The female should be brought to the hospital for examination within 24 hours after delivery. Bring her during the first normal hospital hours the morning after delivery. She will receive hormone injections to contract the uterus, as well as, a uterine douche to prevent infections. We also want to be sure she has milk available, some females do not produce milk, or worse yet, develop “mastitis”, which is infected milk.
Puppies should be dewormed at four weeks of age, and vaccinations started. Start feeding the pups at 3 – 4 weeks of age. Use 2% milk mixed half with water to moisten Gerber High Protein Baby Cereal to form a “mush”. Strained baby food is also a good started diet. A commercial puppy food of HIGH QUALITY should begin to be substituted gradually for the baby cereal after one week.
“Old Dog Syndrome”
Canine Cognitive Dysfunction (CDS) is the age – related deterioration of cognitive abilities (normal body functioning that is conditioned or remembered) characterized by behavioural changed in dogs that cannot be attributed to general medical conditions such as brain tumours, infection, or organ failure. Recent studies show 48% of dogs 8 years of age and older exhibit at least one clinical sign of this condition.
CDS is not “normal aging”. It is related to several pathological changes that may occur in the brain. The progressive, degenerative course of CDS involves a gradual decline of functions that are normally “remembered” sufficient to produce functional disability in the home and/or as a family member.
Recognition of the clinical signs by the owner is usually the first step in diagnosis. Next, the veterinarian must do a comprehensive physical exam and the appropriate laboratory testing to identify medical conditions that may be contributing to the clinical signs.
  •         Wanders aimlessly
  •         Gets “stuck” in corners or behind furniture·        
  •         Stares into space or at walls
  •         Has difficulty finding the door·      
  •         Does not recognize familiar people·      
  •         Does not respond to verbal cues or name
  •        Appears to forget reason for going outdoor
Abnormal Sleep/Wake Patterns;
  •         Sleeps more in a 24 – hour day
  •         Sleeps less during the night
  •         Decrease in activity
  •         Increase in wandering or pacing
Loss of Housetraining
  •          Urinates/defecates indoors
  •          Signals les to go outside
Decreased or Altered Response To Family Members;
  •          Solicits less attention
  •          No longer stands for petting (walks away)
  •          Less enthusiastic greeting
  •          No longer greets owners
  •          Usually diagnosed by ruling out other possibilities.
  •          Often hereditary these pets should not breed.
  •          Usually seizures begin between six months of age and five years of age.
  •          Often initially show as only as a period of weakness or unawareness.
Not recommended if seizures are four to six weeks apart or longer.
  •          Will be required twice daily.
  •          May require a combination of drugs.
  •          There is no cure only attempt to control seizure.
  •          It takes time to get seizure medication regulated properly be patient!
  •          Medication may become ineffective after a period of time requiring altered dosages of different medications. Medications sometimes will not control seizures effectively.
  •          Liver function tests are necessary every six months while on medication since drugs can be detrimental to the liver.
If your pet has a seizure you should;
  •          Remain calm
  •          Do not put your hand into your pet’s mouth.
  •          Be sure the dog is in an environment where he will not harm himself. Remove nearby sharp objects and water.
  •          Observe your pet closely and call the hospital if the actual seizure is still continuing after 10 minutes.
Call the hospital for medication adjustment if the pet is on preventive medication.

An airline shipping crate or wire crate provides guaranteed confinement of your puppy for reasons of security, safety, travel, and housetraining. Dogs love crates! It is their “own private place” – a “security blanket”. The crate helps to satisfy the “den instinct” inherited from their ancestors. If the dog would have his choice, I suspect he would take having his life controlled and structured by his owner, rather than being punished later for causing trouble. Failure to housebreak a dog is a major reason many dogs eventually end up in the animal shelter!
The crate when correctly and humanely used, has many advantages for both you and your pet;
You can;
  •          Enjoy complete peace of mind when leaving your dog at home alone, knowing that developing any bad habits.
  •          Housebreak your dog more quickly by using the close confinement to encourage control, establish a regular routine for outdoor elimination, and to prevent “accidents” at night or when left alone.
  •          Effectively confine your dog at times when he may be underfoot (meals, family activities, unwelcome guests, workman etc), overexcited or bothered by to much confusion, too many children, or illness.
Travel with your dog without risk of the driver being dangerously distracted or the dog getting loose and hopelessly lost, and with the assurance that he can easily adapt to any strange surroundings as long
  •          As he has his familiar “security blanket” along.
Your dog can;
  •          Enjoy the privacy and security of a “den” of his own to which he can retreat when tried, stressed, or ill.
  •          Avoid much of the fear/confusion/punishment caused by your reaction to problem behaviour.
  •         More easily learn to control his bowels and to associate elimination only with the outdoors or other designated location.
  •          Be spared the loneliness and frustration of having to be isolated (basement, garage, outside) from comfortable indoor surroundings when being restricted or left alone.
  •          Be conveniently included in family outings, visits, and trips instead of being left behind at home. You want to enjoy your pet and be pleased with his behaviour. Your dog wants little more from life than to please you. A dog crate can help to make your relationship what each of you wants and needs it to be.
Even the most expensive dog crate is a “BARGAIN” when compared to the cost of repairing or replacing the sofa, chair, woodwork, wallpaper, or carpeting! Always buy one that is “airline approved”.
A crate should be always be large enough to permit the dog to stretch out flat on his side without being cramped and to sit up without hitting his head on top. It is always better to use a crate a little too large rather than one a little too small. Measure the dog from the tip of the nose to the base (not tip) of the tail. Allow for growth by adding about 12 inches. A crate to large can be made smaller by adding a partition of wire, wood, or masonite. Remember that a crate too large for a young puppy defeats its purpose of providing security and promoting bowel control.
Since one of the main reasons for using a crate is to confine a dog without making him feel isolated or banished, it should be placed in, or as close to, a “ people’’ area – kitchen, family room etc. To provide even a greater sense of security and privacy, it should be put back in the corner. Admittedly, a dog crate is not a “thing of beauty”, but it can be forgiven for not being a welcome addition to the household decor as it proves how much it can help the dog to remain a welcome addition to the household.
A young puppy (8 -16 weeks) should normally have no problem accepting a crate as his “own – place”. Any complaining he might do at first is not caused by the crate, but his learning to accept the controls of his new environment. Actually the crate will help him adapt more easily and quickly to his new world.
Place the crate on a “people” area the kitchen, if possible, in a spot from drafts and not to near a direct heat source. For bedding, use an old towel or piece of blanket that can be easily washed. Also you might include some freshly worn unlaundered article of your clothing such as a t shirt, old shirt etc. Avoid putting news paper in or under the crate, since the odour may encourage elimination. A puppy should not be feed in the crate and will only upset a bowl of water.
Make it clear to all family members that the crate is not a playhouse. It is meant to be a “special room” for the puppy, whose rights should be recognised and respected. You should, however, accustom the puppy from the start to letting you reach into the crate at any time, lest he become overprotective of it.
Establish a “crate routine” immediately, closing the puppy in it at regular intervals during the day (his own chosen nap times can guide you) and whenever he must be left alone for up to 3 – 4 hours. Give him a NYLA – BONE chew toy for distraction and be sure to remove collar and tags which could get caught in an opening.
The puppy should be shown no attention while in the crate. Dogs tend to be much better psychologists than their owners – often training the owner, rather than the owner training the puppy.  Any attention shown to the puppy will simply cause the puppy to believe that whining, crying etc, is all that is needed for him to get more attention.
The puppy should be taken outside last thing every night before being put in the crate. Once he goes into the crate, he should stay there until first thing in the morning. IMMEDIATELY when the puppy is removed from the crate, he should be taken to the chosen area for his bowel eliminations.
Always feed the puppy early enough to allow ample time for bowel elimination after eating before placing the puppy in the crate. This can be up to one hour, depending on the dog. Simply clock the time after eating until the bowel movement occurs to determine this time interval for your particular puppy.
After the puppy is fully housetrained (usually 8 – 12 weeks of cage use), you simply can leave the door open (or take it off) and allow the puppy to come and go as he chooses. If the puppy becomes destructive during his growing phases, it is a simple matter again of confining him in the crate when he is not under supervision.
Even if things do not go smoothly at first –DON’T WEAKEN and DON’T WORRY! Be consistent, firm, and be very aware that you are doing your pet a real favour by preventing him from getting into trouble.

Your dog instinctively seeks a master. If you show the patience and firmness needed for the correct training, your dog will let you be the boss. Start by shaping its behaviour when it’s a puppy. The time to start serious training is when your dog can concentrate more, at about 6 months of age.
Be Consistent;
If possible, the same person from the family should be the trainer. Be consistent in your commands, voice inflections, rewards or corrections, and signals.
It’s all about timing;
Dogs equate rewards and corrections with those actions happening all the time. To discourage a behaviour, correct the dog immediately after the action. If you wait too long, your dog won’t understand why you are upset with him.
Reward your dog frequently;
Food treats are the most effective training reinforcements. When you first start training, reward good behaviour often. As your dog becomes more proficient, you can taper off on the food treats.
Praise your dog;
It is more important how you praise your dog then what you say. When praising your pet, use a happy, light hearted tone of voice. For corrections, use a sharp verbal reprimand. Follow reprimands with a caress to give your dog a sense of security and assure it that you are still friends.
Never use force;
A dog learns from the anticipation of reward, not from the fear of correction. Do not use rolled – up newspaper or physical blows to correct your dog. You can pick it up by the loose skin at the scruff of the neck and shake it, like a mother dog corrects her puppies. This won’t hurt your dog, but establishes the fact that you are the master.
Keep training sessions short;
Puppies have a short attention span. Ideally, the training sessions should last 15 – 20 minutes a day. Try to practice in a area that’s free of distractions.
Be Patient;
Don’t expect every training session to be successful. Remember, repetition is the only way a dog will learn. But if you keep your instruction clear, simple and consistent, your dog will do its best to please you.
Have fun with your dog;
Schedule a play time after every training session to show your dog your approval and that you appreciate its hard work. This will help to develop a trusting relationship, which is the foundation for successful training.


Destructive chewing by puppies
Best way to treat this is to  
1. Provide suitable chew toys – selection of pet’s favourites,             
    those best with food holes, mental stimulation, rotate toys
    regularly to maintain interest in toys, encourage chewing of toys with praise
    and food
 2. Provide lots of exercise and mental stimulation.
 3. Discourage unacceptable chewing – Do not give old shoes,
     towels, avoid objects by deterrents, antichew sprays,
     Citronella and cayenne pepper. Noise can be used to deter,
     Loud sharp noise. DO NOT PUNISH.
Destructive behaviour by kittens
1. Provision of toys and climbing centres, cardboard boxes,
    Ping pong balls; encourage playing with drag toys, never
    hands or feet.
2. Prevention – avoidance of chewing with sprays, gates
    locks and provide acceptable plants to chew on ie; catnip,
    catgrass, lettuce. Water pistols can be used to deter
    unwanted behaviour.  NEVER PUNISH.
3. Scratching – trim claws regularly, and provide scratch posts
    near favourite sleep areas. Attach play toys to post to
    encourage use, cat nip also on the post. Reward for going
    near the post.
Preventing Aggression;
SOCIALIZATON      This should start from when you first acquire the pet, starting with simple,
quiet instructions and gradually include more people. Once vac, the puppy should be taken into as many situations as possible and meeting many other dogs and people, without overwhelming of frightening the pet. All people who meets should hand it a treat of food and this prevents hand shyness. The pup should be taught to sit on meeting new people and given a treat by the stranger (this prevents jumping up).
HABITUATION        The pet should be exposed to all environmental stimuli, and all management (nail trimming, ear cleaning, tablet giving, grooming, bathing) treatments at a very young age, and “play vet” situations, so that the pet accepts the clinical exam. Reward should be given for good behaviour. If the pet resents/ becomes aggressive at a particular stimuli then proceed slowly (do not give a treat) and resume at a lower/ milder intensity. Once comfortable with this then introduce a stronger stimuli.
TAKING CONTROL    Family members should take leadership over the pet also, and the pet should respond to a command before receiving anything. Avoid allowing the pet to demand interaction (whining, nudging, and pawing), the pet should be ignored for this behaviour and only given attention on the human terms and not when the pet demands.
FOOD GUARDING     Starting from a very young age with a family member constantly present or feeding the puppy with the bowl on the lap, and placing treats in the bowl while eating will help prevent guarding behaviour. Visitors also can give the pup treats into the bowl at feeding times. This is only done if the pet has no prior behaviour problems.
OBJECT GUARDING    Trade toys for treats, when the dog releases toy say drop it, and request sit prior to giving back toy. Dog then learns to drop toy on command.
PLAY BITING                  Do not punish for harsh bites, scratches, when the bite becomes uncomfortable the family member should yell “ouch” and immediately stop playing and walk away. Another word is “enough” in order to stop play biting on command. If the pet stops it should be rewarded, if not, another yell even louder in order that the pet backs away (but no to scare). All members of the house must do this in order for it to work. DO NOT PUNISH AS THIS CAUSES ANXIETY, SLOWS LEARNING AND CREATES FEAR PROBLEMS.
1. Withdrawal – When jumping up stand still and look away and ignore dog.
2. Withdraw hand being mouthed and ignore dog.
3. Once stopped jumping and mouthing give positive reinforcement ie; greet, pat, or praise. Only do this when the dog is quiet. Mouthing dogs should not be involved in rough play or wrestling, instead fetch games.
4. Head Halters – For use on large dogs, turn the dog away when it is jumping or mouthing and only continue interaction when dog is calm.
5. SIT command – the dog must be asked to sit at the onset of any interaction.
6. Positive punishment - Techniques such as shouting, knee pushing, kicking, hitting often fail as the timing must be perfect, and certain dogs may become fearful.
7. When grooming/ handling  -  ask the dog to sit – stay, when the dog is quiet, give 1- 2 strokes of brush then give treat for being quiet, if the dog struggles then the handler should withdraw the treat, take a very short break , and resume, try stroke with the non bristled side of brush. Short sessions are better, and end on a positive.
8. Must be consistent and EVERY TIME dog performs wrong behaviour! Otherwise fails.
1. Initiation of play should come from the owner, and ignore responding to the dog’s demand for play. Using a word “playtime” and set area to play, or toy.
2. Rules of conduct – rough play permitted means the dog will play rough with everyone; do not encourage chasing people as this may bring out instinctive predatory behaviour, especially on small children.
3. Toys should be encouraged, balls, Frisbee, care with tug of war – that the dog does not become aggressive, structured play such as Agility/ obedience classes are very good.
Pulling is the most common problem, as the owner pulls back in response the dog then pulls harder. Changing the collar is not addressing the underlying problem; if the dog pulls to get toward other dogs and people then a painful collar (choke collar) will make the dog worse.
Halter/ head collars/ Halti’s are very good at controlling a pulling dog.
Negative punishment is not used in a way that when walking and the dog starts to pull, a word is used (ie oops, or a click – not a word to associate with anything else), and stop walking. The dog will learn that if it pulls the walk stops.
Positive rewards should be used when to dog understands what the commands means. Treats are best. Start in a quiet, non distracting environment, and get a good grounding of commands before being let loose in the park with many other dogs. Do not punish or chase the dog if it does not respond, a long lead is best used if then dog becomes distracted. Do not inadvertently punish the dog for example; if you ask the dog to come, and then leave the park – means the dog is punished with no more play. Also if the dog is called inside then the owner leaves, means the dog is punished for coming inside. Given the dog play and praise time for responding to the command, before leaving.
Different causes of XS barking;
1. Separation anxiety
2. Compulsive barking/ monotonous unknown cause
3. Territorial aggression
4. Older dogs with cognitive dysfunction
Nuisance barking is the best treated with counter conditioning, and teaching the dog to respond with grabbing a toy, or some other quiet activity, and rewarded for such.
Attention seeking – To get the owners attention even if it is yelled at, this behaviour may stop if the dog is ignored, ( remaining in place and looking away), the dog may get a little worse before better with this method. Also the use of head halters to ask the dog to sit, the halter will close the mouth slightly, and when the dog is quiet for a least a minute the praise. The owner may need to say “stay” whilst the dog is sitting to keep the dog quiet.
In dogs with no anxiety, aggression or anxious nature then barking collars may work. Using other noise (yelling/paper/ other noise) to stop the dog will only excite or create fear.
Treatment may be difficult as the dog may be not be corrected when the owners are not home.
Many underlying causes of destructive behaviour, separation anxiety, obsessive compulsive, thunderstorm phobias, and territorial aggression.
1.   Supervise the dog in a small confined area, while chewing on toys, especially in a new home.
2. Flavour deterrents – bitter flavouring and cayenne pepper/ citronella
3. Remote control citronella collar – so that when the dog goes to chew the item the citronella may be sprayed, and then citronella may be sprayed on all areas to stop the dog.
Provide the dog with a sand pit to dig, and encourage with treats hidden. Also check no vermin/ rodents are present as this may stimulate hunting digging. Citronella collars may be useful to negative reinforce digging.
There are several different causes for house soiling; age related (puppy), Submissive urination, excitement urination, marking territory, separation anxiety.
1. To make it pleasurable for the dog to eliminate in the proper place such as newspaper – ie give treats, praise, place dog in spot to soil 15 – 30 minutes after every meal, or when dog sniffing as if going to soil.
2. Give the dog frequent opportunities to eliminate – after every meal and first and last thing during the day and night.
3. Remove the opportunity to house soil – if there is a place where the dog always goes, then do not enable the dog to soil there, place its food in that spot (this may deter),also close off this area, or tie the dog up when you are home, and when the dog shows signs of needing to eliminate ( panting, pawing the owner, standing rather than lying, sniffing the ground), take the dog outside and praise if eliminates.
Never punish a dog for excitation/submissive urination as this will make things worse.
This is a complicated issue, and there are 7 main categories of problems;
1. Feline Urinary Tract Infection/ Disease (this must be ruled out by the vet)
2. Location Preference
3. Location Aversion
4. Substrate Preference
5. Substrate Aversion
6. Marking Behaviours (spraying, maddening (faeces to mark area))
7. Stress/ Anxiety – Motivated.
1. Change access to soiling areas, confinement (works in some cases), supervision (owner must follow cat at all times to monitor and if soiling in action distract with loud noise), never PUNISH the cat as this will definitely make the problem worse.
2. Make litter box more attractive, should be kept very clean, 1 – 2 x daily, try changing materials and depth, change design  ) covers, sides, larger area, do not use strong detergents), at least 1 litter box per cat, and in different areas of the house. In elderly cats as easily accessible litter box.
3. Make soiled areas less attractive, clean with biological enzymatic products that will destroy urine proteins, place something over the soiling area, (alfoil, potpourri, mothballs, sticky tape).
4. Marking behaviours are more difficult to treat, sexual marking is treated by desexing, reactional marking is due to intercat relationship (in the house and cats outside), cat – human interactions, cat stress/ anxiety.
5. Inter cat relationships can be difficult to manage, try to make each close encounter pleasant, i.e. food/ attention, etc. Spraying cat may respond to being separated alone into a private area (where other cat cannot access) for a minimum of 4 – 6 hrs a day.
6. Integrate household changes slowly to try and avoid reactional spraying.
7. Make the sprayed area aversive.
8. Block visual access to outside cats, block windows, frosted glass, move furniture access, and block windowsills.
9. Pheromones; “FELIWAY” is a product that has bottled the pleasure of pheromones produced by cats and it can be applied as a spray on constant diffuser around the home, to calm and relax the cats in the home.
10. Clomipramine (CLOMICALM); this product may help in many cases, seek vet advice.
11. Amytriptyline – very useful for inappropriate elimination problem, idiopathic FLUTD.
The longer that the behaviour has been present the more difficult it is to treat and resolve.

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